2.5

Meng Yizi asked about filiality.

Confucius said, “Don’t diverge from them.”

Later, as Fan Chi was driving Confucius’ chariot, Confucius told him, “Meng Yizi asked me about filiality and I told him, ‘Don’t diverge from them.’”

Fan Chi asked, “What did you mean by that?”

Confucius said, “While your parents are alive, serve them according to ritual. When they die, bury them according to ritual. After they are gone, venerate them according to ritual.”

6.22

Fan Chi asked about wisdom.

Confucius said, “Work for justice and harmony in society. Respect the spirits, but keep them at a distance. That’s wisdom.”

Fan Chi then asked about humaneness.

Confucius replied, “Ah, humaneness. The humane person takes on the difficulty of self-cultivation first and only looks for the outcomes afterwards. That’s humaneness.”

12.21

Fan Chi, while walking with Confucius among the Rain Dance altars, asked, “If I may, can I ask how to raise up virtue, overcome wickedness, and recognize delusion?”

Confucius replied, “Great questions! If you put the effort before reward, won’t that raise up virtue? If you attack evil itself rather than the evil person, won’t that overcome wickedness? In a moment of anger, to forget the danger to yourself and to your parents, isn’t that delusion?”

12.22

Fan Chi asked Confucius about humaneness.

Confucius replied, “Love others.”

Fan Chi then asked about knowledge.

Confucius replied, “Know others.”

Fan Chi didn’t get it.

Confucius continued, “Place the upright over the crooked and the crooked will be straightened out.”

After Fan Chi left, he saw Zixia and said to him, “I was just asking Confucius about knowledge and he said, ‘Place the upright over the crooked and the crooked will be straightened out.’ What did he mean by this?”

Zixia replied, “How rich his words are! When Shun was emperor, he selected Gao Yao from among the people and put him in charge. Evil people kept their distance. When T’ang was emperor, he selected Yi Yin and put him in charge. Here again, the evil people kept their distance.”

13.4

Fan Chi asked Confucius about farming.

Confucius replied, “Why don’t you go ask an old farmer?”

Fan Chi asked Confucius about growing vegetables.

Confucius replied, “Why don’t you go ask an old gardener?”

Fan Chi left, and Confucius said, “What a simple-minded person Fan Chi is! If the people in charge love ritual, the people wouldn’t dare to be irreverent. If the people in charge love righteousness, then the people wouldn’t dare to be disobedient. If the people in charge loved being true to their word, then the people wouldn’t dare to be two-faced.

“If you govern this way, the people would come flocking to you, carrying their babies on their backs. Why worry about agriculture?”

13.19

Fan Chi asked about humaneness.

Confucius replied, “Be reverent at home, respectfully attentive in public matters, and loyal in your dealings with others.

“Even if you go and live with barbarians, don’t throw these things away.”